Indonesia is among the world’s top coffee producing and exporting countries. Most of production constitutes the lower quality robusta type. Indonesia is also famous for having a number of specialty coffees such as ‘kopi luwak‘ (known as world’s the most expensive coffee) and ‘kopi Mandailing‘ (see below). Regarding agricultural commodities, coffee is Indonesia’s fourth-largest foreign exchange earner palm oil, rubber and cocoa.
Coffee was introduced to the archipelago by the Dutch who initially planted coffee trees around their stronghold of Batavia but quickly expanded coffee production to the Bogor and Sukabumi regions in West Java in the 17th and 18th century. Indonesia proved to have a near ideal climate for coffee production, hence plantations were soon established on other parts of Java and on the islands of Sumatra and Sulawesi.