To be able to cause confidence and know the real enjoyment of coffee, we must know the coffee processing process. Coffee has a very long journey to enjoy both in low quality commercials and specialty. The initial process is to start from seeding, then arrange the tree by arranging tree branches to ensure good and maximum growth, post-harvest process, coffee cerry selection, post-harvest process, grinding, seed selection, sangria to coffee brewing. Every process carried out will affect the taste and aroma of coffee. The post-harvest process is carried out to separate the coffee beans from the meat. The post-harvest process also varies, there is a dry process and a wet process. Here are some post-harvest processes :
- NATURAL PROCESS (DRY PROCESS)
Natural process is the oldest method that is still often used. As the name implies, this process does not involve machinery and water. Coffee fruits that have gone through the selection process according to the desired quality will be directly dried in direct sunlight. Some coffee farmers usually dry under plastic or use special drying places such as greenhouses with special tables arranged and using water flow that has been arranged so that the humidity level is maintained properly.
In the natural process, the coffee fruit that is dried in the sun is not peeled off the skin, but dried in the sun. In the drying process, the coffee fruit must be turned over evenly in order to get the drying process perfectly and evenly throughout the coffee fruit. In addition, so that the coffee fruit does not experience excessive fermentation in certain parts which results in decay. The natural process method as the name implies will undergo a natural fermentation process and the skin peels off on its own. This process is often done by farmers in Indonesia because it is quite easy. But it has risks because it relies heavily on the weather. This process requires a drying time of 3-4 weeks. The taste produced from naturally processed coffee beans is usually very fruity or has a strong fruit flavor such as blueberries and strawberries, with full body and low acidity.
- WASHED PROCESS (WET PROCESS)
Or also known as wet process. Generally, this process aims to remove all the skin of the flesh attached to the coffee beans before drying. Once harvested, the coffee cherries are usually ‘selected’ first by soaking them in water. The floating cherries will be disposed of, while the sunken ones will still be left for further processing because such cherries are considered ripe.
Furthermore, the outer skin and skin of the coffee cherry meat will be removed using a special machine called a depulper. The coffee beans that have been removed from the skin are then cleaned again by putting them in a special vessel filled with water so that the remnants of the skin that are still attached can be completely shed due to the fermentation process. Generally, washed coffee has a cleaner, lighter character, less fruity taste, the body tends to be light and soft with more acidity.
- HYBRID PROCESS
Wet Process is a process used by using water in the coffee skin separation process. This method is carried out to simplify and speed up the process of separating coffee skins. In addition, this process can also be used to get the desired taste of coffee. The following are some of the processes of the Dry Process:
- Pulped Natural Process
This is a method often used by coffee farmers in Brazil. This method is carried out in order to separate the coffee beans from the peel and exfoliate the flesh of the coffee fruit. This process is carried out using a pulper machine which will continue to be doused with water so that during the grinding process the coffee beans do not break due to the heat of the machine due to the thick flesh of the coffee fruit and the coffee skin that tends to dry. After that, the coffee fruit is dried in direct sunlight and the coffee meat will be partially peeled off from the coffee beans. The rest of the meat that is still attached to the coffee beans during drying will cause sweetness in the coffee beans.
El-Savador and Costa Rica are countries that often use honey processes for the separation of coffee beans. This process is almost the same method as the natural process depulper method. The difference lies in the use of less water for the honey process when peeling off the coffee fruit with a pulper machine which will result in the brushing of the mucilage layer and then drying in the sun. The mucus layer is the main key to the honey process because it stores sugar content and acidity so that the resulting taste is high sweetness with balanced acidity. The sticky mucus layer resembling honey makes this process called the honey process. The difference in the amount of mucus that is still attached makes coffee beans that go through this process and have been dried are divided into three colors, namely Red (50% of the mucous layer), Yellow (25% of the mucus layer), and Black Honey (100% of the mucus layer).
- Full Wash
This method is a process that uses more water for the processing of cerry fruits. The first process that is carried out is to wash the Full-washed coffee fruit. This process begins with putting coffee cherries in a tub of water to select fruits that have ripened and those that have not. The characteristics of a ripe coffee fruit will sink to the bottom of the tub, while the immature one will float. The coffee fruit used is just a sinking one. Then the coffee fruit is allowed to stand in a tub filled with water for the coffee fruit soaking process. This soaking process can take up to 12 hours with the replacement of soaking water in the 6th hour. Then, the selected coffee cherries will be dried in the sun for approximately 3-4 weeks to dry. The character of the taste produced by this process is light and mild coffee.
- Semi Wash
As the name suggests, semi-washed process or ‘wet-hulled process‘ which in Indonesian is commonly referred to as ‘wet milling’ is a processing method by combining natural processes with washed processes (hybrid method). In the initial process, ripe cherries are peeled off using a machine and then the contents are dried in the sun. After the drying process is complete, the coffee beans that are still in a slimy state are then stored for approximately 24 hours. Then, the mucus that is still attached is washed thoroughly and dried again. Coffee beans processed by this method have a strong enough body and are very suitable for processing into espresso and have a more intense sweet taste with lower acid.
Based on reviews of coffee bean processing methods, which method can produce coffee flavors according to your taste?
Source : stradacoffee, ottencoffee